How to overclock the Cybervision64/3D

Please note that this article was provided by Pavel Narozny. If you have any comments or queries, could you please refer them to him.

The Cybervision64/3D (henceforth to be referred to as the CV3D in this article), is a Zorro II/III compatible video card which is based on the ViRGE chip which was designed for PCI applications. There was also a VLBUS version, which would be much faster when writing, however, unfortunately, it would only be suitable for Zorro III usage. Likewise, the earlier CV64 was ZIII only as it used the VLBUS Trio64 chip. The CV64 also had an inbuilt monitor switcher which did not scandouble the native Amiga screenmodes, unlike the CV3D which had provision for an optional scandoubler, using the Amiga's video slot. Since the CV64 used the VLBUS-based Trio64 chip, it is twice as fast when comparing writing speed into gfx memory when compared to the newer CV3D as there was no requirement for a PCI to ZorroIII bridge and it's consequent overheads. This is because the VLBUS is nearly the same as ZorroIII and is asynchronous, like Zorro III. PCI uses a synchronous design and as a result, the CV64 was the fastest Amiga Zorro graphics card available in regards to writing to video memory, however it lacks such features as PIP, 3D hardware rendering and scandoubler as is found on the CV3D. Note that the PicassoIV is also much faster that the CV3D and it also contains a flickerfixer.

Although the CV3D was officially fitted with the ViRGE chip, there was a later version of the ViRGE chip, which may have found it's way into some of the later CV3D cards. This was the ViRGE DX chip, which will be examined in more detail later in this article. The information on the DX chip is currently incomplete since I am lacking some official information from Phase5. If anyone out there has a CV3D with a ViRGE DX chip, please contact me.

Video Memory and overclocking

Overclocking the CV3D basically involves changing some environment variables since video memory clock speed is programmable. The main limiting factor here is your video memory speed. The CV3D is normally supplied with 70nS memory, which will allow a modest amount of overclocking. Much more can be obtained if the video memory on the CV3D is replaced with faster chips. I replaced my original 70nS chips with 25nS chips, however, 40 or 45nS chips are still more than fast enough because the ViRGE chip can't work reliably at the maximum speed appropriate to 25nS memory. In any case, just about anything that is faster than 70nS will be worthwhile. The chips you need are standard 512KBx4 video DRAMs, as used on pC video cards. These RAMs could be taken from a ViRGE-based video card, in which case you could be sure that they will work. EDO RAM should also be OK, although I did not test them. I don't expect any speed advantage from using EDO as the memory controller and interface in the card will need to be modified to gain the improvements, and these modifications would be out of the scope for this simple hack. The RAMs will need to be changed by an electronics technician, as they are surface mount and hard to remove without damaging the PCB. My memory chips were taken from an Eagle Power 3D card which contains a ViRGE DX chip. Note that all figures quoted in this text will assume the memory has been replaced. Naturally, you won't be able to overclock as much if you are using the standard 70nS memory. Many people have reported diferent maximum clock speeds, but around 70MHz is the most you can expect with the standard 70nS RAMs, if you are lucky!

Overclocking with CyberGraphX

Memory clock speed is set by a tooltype in the CyberGraphX monitor (found in devs/monitors). Note there may be variations in this name depending on which version of CyberGraphX you are running. If you find that this doesn't work, because you are using an old CyberGraphX v3, then try to update it or contact me. All you have to do is either edit or add MEMCLOCK=77 to the tooltypes. If you have not changed your memory, the maximum value you can use will be about 70. The default value is 55. If you use too high a value, your screen will be corrupt the next time you boot. While you are editing the tooltypes, I suggest you also add ADVANCEDCLK=YES as well. This will give you greater flexibility in editing your screenmodes later, and will help you get the most out of your overclocking. Once you have saved it, reboot. You will now find that blitting operations such as scrolling, filling, blit bitmap etc.. are now faster. You can also now edit your screenmodes for higher refresh rates to reduce flicker. For example, with MEMCLOCK=77, you will now be able to get 1024x768 24-bit noninterlaced at 69Hz without the "digital noise" which happens when anything is moving on the screen. This is because faster memory allows the internal DAC in the chip to work faster, providing higher resolutions.

Finally, avoid the temptation to set the MEMCLOCK too high - you will get a severely corrupt screen, making it difficult to see for the purposes of correcting it! Go little by little, when corruption appears, back off a bit and test thoroughly, over a period of several hours. If you have gone too high (such as 99MHz!), and you can't correct the clock setting because of screen corruption or crashing, try booting without the Startup-sequence and type "LoadWB". This will allow you to boot your system using the standard Amiga display, and you can then edit the tooltype to a more sensible value. Note that there is little risk of damaging the card, as it is inactive at this time.

Overclocking with P96 (Picasso 96)

As in CyberGraphX, you will need to add or change a couple of tooltypes. these are: MemoryClock=77 and OverClock=YES. At the moment, however, the maximum allowable value for MemoryClock is 75. Hopefully, Tobias, the author of P96 may be convinced to increase it in future. It is possible to change this maximum limit by using FileX (version 2.0b5, available from Aminet). Open the P96 file in Libs:Picasso96 S3VIRGE.chip and search for the hex equivalent of 75000000 (047868c0). Replace this value with the new maximum limit you desire, eg: - 99000000 for 99MHz. That is 05e69ec0 in hex. Select the Disable String search option in the Filex 2.0 Search/Replace requester before you start editing. If you are using an OLD version of p96, replace only the first value. Save and reboot. Now you will be able to set your MemoryClock up to a maximum of 99. Don't forget, as in the CyberGraphx case, if you haven't changed your RAM, the maximum allowable will only be about 70Mhz.

You may find that using P96 you will end with a slightly lower clock (1-2MHz) than CyberGraphX. This is because P96 uses a chip function called "occlusion" which prevents visual overdrawing of windows and menus by a PIP window. (when these are correctly opened through the P96 API)


Once you have selected the values that you like, and your system has been working OK for several hours, select a screenmode that uses the highest possible bandwidth (the highest pixel clock setting), and open a PIP window on it. Drag it around. Try resizing it, making it alternately small and large, narrow and wide. There should be no corruption on the screen during these movements. If there is you will need to back off a bit on your new pixelclock settings. A good example of a PIP screen is Megademo/Artwork (best to adjust the window for the smallest possible width and the biggest possible height - this will ensure the most rigorous conditions for this test).

David Myers hint: Another test (for CyberGraphX users), if you have set up your WB with opaque move (from MCP), you can open up the test pattern in the CGraphX mode program (in prefs) and drag around the settings requester. You can do it for each screenmode you are setting up.

ViRGE DX Chip.

A further speed improvement can be obtained by also replacing the original ViRGE chip with the later ViRGE DX version. I tried this on my board and ran into several problems. 8-bit screenmodes were corrupt (see picture below).

There were also problems with displaying PIP images, though my PIP tests were also using 8-bit background screenmodes. I think that these problems are possibly caused by differences in the way the DX chip reads/stores palette information, since the first 16 colours are OK, then the next 16 are trashed, then the 16 after that are OK, and so on.... Tobias Abt (the author of P96) has said that if he can get hold of a card with a DX chip, he will be able to update P96 to support it. People who have CV3D cards with DX chips fitted by Phase5 report that there are no problems with 8-bit screenmodes, although they have found that PIP does not work at all. It seems that there are some differences with the boards. If you have one, I would like to find out what they are.

The DX chip (I had it tested and working in the CV3D) promises to provide much faster 3D rendering. In addition, there is a 30% speedup at any given clock speed compared to the older ViRGE chip and finally, it is possible to clock the DX chip at higher frequencies - such as 99MHz. For example, at 99MHz, using an 8-bit 800x600 screen at 100Hz, I was able to scroll it at up to 252fps! (that is normal PicassoIV speed, BTW) But at 99MHz are there some small gfx errors - chip can't handle that clock realiably. However, backing off a little to 92Mhz provides correct operation, and is still much faster than 77Mhz, which I am using now.


  • p96speed 1.2, A1200 Micronik Z2, CV3D
  • 800x600x8bit 100Hz. Refresh memory clock=77Mhz
  • cgx 4.1p96 1.44b4cgx 4.1p96 1.44b4
    55 MHz55 Mhz77 Mhz77 Mhz
    RectFill()1760 op/s1640 op/s2396 op/s2868 op/s
    RectFill() Pattern283 op/s1606 op/s273 op/s2765 op/s
    WritePixel()250293 op/s118549 op/s244927 op/s118879 op/s
    WriteChunkyPixels()168 op/s207 op/s168 op/s207 op/s
    WritePixelArray8()205 op/s206 op/s204 op/s206 op/s
    WritePixelLine8()12317 op/s11678 op/s10916 op/s11743 op/s
    DrawEllipse()5340 op/s5170 op/s5145 op/s5190 op/s
    DrawCircle()5567 op/s5423 op/s5173 op/s5517 op/s
    Draw()8036 op/s9178 op/s8385 op/s10984 op/s
    Draw() Hor/Ver9953 op/s15156 op/s8718 op/s17013 op/s
    ScrollRaster() X112 op/s102 op/s175 op/s182 op/s
    ScrollRaster() Y110 op/s99 op/s172 op/s180 op/s
    PutText()4789 op/s5265 op/s4194 op/s5278 op/s
    BlitBitMap()4740 op/s5523 op/s4945 op/s7460 op/s
    BlitBitMapRastPort()4192 op/s4843 op/s4089 op/s6205 op/s
    BitMapScale()29 op/s46 op/s30 op/s47 op/s
    OpenWindow()92 op/s116 op/s88 op/s118 op/s
    MoveWindow()518 op/s477 op/s545 op/s529 op/s
    SizeWindow()133 op/s169 op/s127 op/s154 op/s
    CON-Output154 op/s160 op/s213 op/s248 op/s
    ScreenToFront()50 op/s60 op/s50 op/s60 op/s

    Note that blitter routines (important for scrolling) are sped up by 1.8x. At 99MHz, using a DX chip,the speed up is 2.5x. Amazing, eh? Also note that blitter operations are faster using P96 ie: BitMapBlit etc... Of course, things that rely on Zorro bus speed, such as writing tests are not affected by memory clock. Tests shown here are with Zorro II. Dropping the refresh down to 75Hz should provide a further increase in speed, however, I prefer 100Hz. Keep that in mind if you get faster results than me, the you are using a lower refresh rate. Note that I am using 100Hz refresh for all my RTG software settings.

    Which RTG software?

    I had been using CGX for many years, and I decided to try P96, as I was unhappy with the bugs I had in CGX. I was amazed with the results. Everything seems to be about twice as fast! Booting is faster, menus are much faster (for example in CeD they are about 10x faster). Moving windows is faster. WB backdrops are textured much faster, scrolling... etc. This appears to be because P96 makes extensive use of the blitter whereas CGX uses fast-RAM for the parts of the screen that are under windows. This is of great value in a ZII machine like mine because access to the blitter is far faster compared to going through the ZII bus to get to fast RAM. I suspect using the blitter in this case is almost 30x faster. Using the onboard blitter would still be faster when using ZIII. This is still true in the case of cards using faster custom buses such as the Phase5 CVPPC and Bvision. In this case, using the blitter in the Permedia2 chip should be about 10x faster than accessing Fast RAM.

    Other advantages I found using P96 are: - no more PIP overwriting menus, windows etc. - P96 uses the occlusion feature of ViRGE here. Graphics bugs I had before (centering and clearing hi/tru color screens) are also not evident in P96. P96 can open 24bit screens, CGX only 32bit (+alpha). There virtually is no difference, but ViRGE can do texturing only in 24bit, not in 32 bit, so when Warp3D adds support for that, then...!! =) (15bit & dither sucks!) Also many programs need 24bit (R8G8B8) instead of 32bit (ARGB) mode... (at least some betas... and mostly from PicassoIV owners) It is also possible to create a 160*120 pixel screen with P96, unlike CGX which won't allow you to set a low enough pixel clock to to avoid having your vertical refresh over 120Hz (or simply over what your monitor can handle =). Also P96 will have in future the possibility of opening an 8bit PIP on CV3D, as promised by the author.

    You can see the comparisons in the benchmarks above, so I think P96 is very much worth a try, if you have a supported GFX card like PicassoIV, PicassoII, CV3D, CV64 or Retina or... =) Unfortunately, there is currently no support for the CVPPC and the BVision.

    For more information, contact me at: Pavel Narozny,

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    Introduced August 8th 1999. Updated August 8th 1999. Version 1.0